Menus Subscribe Search

Follow us


You Don't Know America

in-god-we-trust1

(Photo: cwwycoff1/Flickr)

When Did Americans Start Trusting in God?

• February 20, 2014 • 8:00 AM

(Photo: cwwycoff1/Flickr)

It all goes back to the Cold War.

The most unlikely weapons of the Cold War were dollar bills and postage stamps. They, like the Pledge of Allegiance, were remade during the ’50s to reflect a newly necessary religiosity that defined Christian America sharply against the Atheist Soviet Union. “In God We Trust” went from an occasional mantra to the official motto of the country. While coins had featured the inscription for years, nothing was spared those words during the Cold War: everything from bills and bonds to stamps got engraved and etched, while children were freshly required to proclaim their allegiance to “one nation, under God.”

The Pledge of Allegiance was written in 1892, but it wasn’t until 1953 that the words “under God” were added. Drafted by a Baptist minister helping to organize the 400th anniversary celebration of Columbus’ arrival in America, the pledge was designed as a way to honor the American flag and incorporate it into school ceremonies. Reverend Francis Bellamy melded elements of the Declaration of Independence with the Constitution, hoping to encourage civic education.

The pledge had only just been made official by Congress in 1945, when eight years later Senator Homer Ferguson of Michigan proposed adding “under God.” Representative Louis C. Rabaut of Michigan introduced the same resolution in the House of Representatives. By 1954, the same year that Senator Joseph McCarthy held his hearings, it was official: the pledge was amended to include the words “one nation, under God.”

It seems that once Americans starting trusting in God, they just couldn’t stop, converting every piece of political real estate into a testament of faith that defined our cultural religion against the atheism of the Communist World.

Challenges arose almost immediately, though it took 50 years for the issue to reach the Supreme Court, when an atheist from California sued his daughter’s school district. A technicality related to the father’s standing meant that the Supreme Court did not rule on the merits of the case, dodging the question of whether the pledge violates the Establishment Clause. Even the possibility that it might lead Congress to try and ensconce the religious language in a Pledge Protection Act, barring courts from ever altering the words; that act never passed, though an earlier ruling by the Court protects children from being required to recite any portion of the pledge.

While “one nation, under God” has endured, a less successful campaign was directed at America’s postage stamps. Postmaster General Arthur E. Summerfield received countless requests to mandate the printing of “In God We Trust” on all American postage stamps. Civilian pleas came alongside legislative prodding. Representative Rabaut of Michigan (of earlier pledge-changing fame) even got creative, offering to put the words on the cancellation stamp rather than the postage itself.

Summerfield would spend his term as postmaster general dealing with these requests, which he objected to mostly on aesthetic grounds, believing the words would crowd out any additional design with such a small patch of real estate. And Cold War anxiety affected more than stamps: Summerfield also oversaw the failed launch of “missile mail,” a postal delivery that involved letter-stuffed cruise missiles.

Proponents of the mandatory appearance of “In God We Trust” on postage stamps argued that the printing of it on coins (which had occurred intermittently since the Civil War) had only a local effect, circulating within the country, but our postage stamps could take the religious message global. A mandate was never passed, though a single stamp with a portrait of the Statue of Liberty and the banner “In God We Trust” was released in 1954.

With pledges and postage amended as best they could, the zealots turned to the national motto. Pretending as if the United States been not conducting business for over a century with the motto “E PLURIBUS UNUM,” Congress approved “In God We Trust” as the official motto in 1956. As the resolution from the House Judiciary Committee declared: “It will be of great spiritual and psychological value to our country to have a clearly designated national motto of inspirational quality in plain, popularly accepted English.”

Once the motto was settled, Cold Warriors turned to the Treasury Department. Not satisfied with coins bearing the godly inscription, they took on paper currency: adding the words “In God We Trust” denomination-by-denomination until finally in 1966, the words appeared on every bill. It seems that once Americans starting trusting in God, they just couldn’t stop, converting every piece of political real estate into a testament of faith that defined our cultural religion against the atheism of the Communist World.

There have always been objections to these political invocations of holy. Such ostentatious testaments to civic religion offend secularists who claim the state is promoting church as well as believers who protest religious language that can only be protected because it is deemed to have lost its religious meaning. Neither objection is new. In 1963, a retired colonel of the United States Army published the monograph Our Hypocritical New National Motto: In God We Trust. Colonel Abbott Boone’s book is dedicated to “the many millions of sturdy, indomitable American souls who refuse to have their religious allegiances and obligations strait-jacketed by congressional dictate.”

Whether it’s unconstitutional or blasphemous, neither side seems to like these vestiges of the Cold War. Every so often, a movement swells to try and have the motto changed, but like the pennies that bear it, it seems to endure, however impractical. It remains, protected as tradition, even though it’s only a few decades old.

Casey N. Cep
Casey N. Cep is a writer from the Eastern Shore of Maryland. She has written for the New Republic, the New York Times, the New Yorker, and the Paris Review. Follow her on Twitter @cncep.

More From Casey N. Cep

A weekly roundup of the best of Pacific Standard and PSmag.com, delivered straight to your inbox.

Recent Posts

December 19 • 4:00 PM

How a Drug Policy Reform Organization Thinks of the Children

This valuable, newly updated resource for parents is based in the real world.


December 19 • 2:00 PM

Where Did the Ouija Board Come From?

It wasn’t just a toy.


December 19 • 12:00 PM

Social Scientists Can Do More to Eradicate Racial Oppression

Using our knowledge of social systems, all social scientists—black or white, race scholar or not—have an opportunity to challenge white privilege.


December 19 • 10:17 AM

How Scientists Contribute to Bad Science Reporting

By not taking university press officers and research press releases seriously, scientists are often complicit in the media falsehoods they so often deride.


December 19 • 10:00 AM

Pentecostalism in West Africa: A Boon or Barrier to Disease?

How has Ghana stayed Ebola-free despite being at high risk for infection? A look at their American-style Pentecostalism, a religion that threatens to do more harm than good.


December 19 • 8:00 AM

Don’t Text and Drive—Especially If You’re Old

A new study shows that texting while driving becomes even more dangerous with age.


December 19 • 6:12 AM

All That ‘Call of Duty’ With Your Friends Has Not Made You a More Violent Person

But all that solo Call of Duty has.


December 19 • 4:00 AM

Food for Thought: WIC Works

New research finds participation in the federal WIC program, which subsidizes healthy foods for young children, is linked with stronger cognitive development and higher test scores.


December 18 • 4:00 PM

How I Navigated Life as a Newly Sober Mom

Saying “no” to my kids was harder than saying “no” to alcohol. But for their sake and mine, I had to learn to put myself first sometimes.


December 18 • 2:00 PM

Women in Apocalyptic Fiction Shaving Their Armpits

Because our interest in realism apparently only goes so far.


December 18 • 12:00 PM

The Paradox of Choice, 10 Years Later

Paul Hiebert talks to psychologist Barry Schwartz about how modern trends—social media, FOMO, customer review sites—fit in with arguments he made a decade ago in his highly influential book, The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less.


December 18 • 10:00 AM

What It’s Like to Spend a Few Hours in the Church of Scientology

Wrestling with thetans, attempting to unlock a memory bank, and a personality test seemingly aimed at people with depression. This is Scientology’s “dissemination drill” for potential new members.


December 18 • 8:00 AM

Gendering #BlackLivesMatter: A Feminist Perspective

Black men are stereotyped as violent, while black women are rendered invisible. Here’s why the gendering of black lives matters.


December 18 • 7:06 AM

Apparently You Can Bring Your Religion to Work

New research says offices that encourage talk of religion actually make for happier workplaces.


December 18 • 6:00 AM

The Very Weak and Complicated Links Between Mental Illness and Gun Violence

Vanderbilt University’s Jonathan Metzl and Kenneth MacLeish address our anxieties and correct our assumptions.


December 18 • 4:00 AM

Should Movies Be Rated RD for Reckless Driving?

A new study finds a link between watching films featuring reckless driving and engaging in similar behavior years later.


December 17 • 4:00 PM

How to Run a Drug Dealing Network in Prison

People tend not to hear about the prison drug dealing operations that succeed. Substance.com asks a veteran of the game to explain his system.


December 17 • 2:00 PM

Gender Segregation of Toys Is on the Rise

Charting the use of “toys for boys” and “toys for girls” in American English.


December 17 • 12:41 PM

Why the College Football Playoff Is Terrible But Better Than Before

The sample size is still embarrassingly small, but at least there’s less room for the availability cascade.


December 17 • 11:06 AM

Canadian Kids Have a Serious Smoking Problem

Bootleg cigarette sales could be leading Canadian teens to more serious drugs, a recent study finds.


December 17 • 10:37 AM

A Public Lynching in Sproul Plaza

When photographs of lynching victims showed up on a hallowed site of democracy in action, a provocation was issued—but to whom, by whom, and why?


December 17 • 8:00 AM

What Was the Job?

This was the year the job broke, the year we accepted a re-interpretation of its fundamental bargain and bought in to the push to get us to all work for ourselves rather than each other.


December 17 • 6:00 AM

White Kids Will Be Kids

Even the “good” kids—bound for college, upwardly mobile—sometimes break the law. The difference? They don’t have much to fear. A professor of race and social movements reflects on her teenage years and faces some uncomfortable realities.



December 16 • 4:00 PM

How Fear of Occupy Wall Street Undermined the Red Cross’ Sandy Relief Effort

Red Cross responders say there was a ban on working with the widely praised Occupy Sandy relief group because it was seen as politically unpalatable.


Follow us


Don’t Text and Drive—Especially If You’re Old

A new study shows that texting while driving becomes even more dangerous with age.

Apparently You Can Bring Your Religion to Work

New research says offices that encourage talk of religion actually make for happier workplaces.

Canadian Kids Have a Serious Smoking Problem

Bootleg cigarette sales could be leading Canadian teens to more serious drugs, a recent study finds.

The Hidden Psychology of the Home Ref

That old myth of home field bias isn’t a myth at all; it’s a statistical fact.

The Big One

One in two United States senators and two in five House members who left office between 1998 and 2004 became lobbyists. November/December 2014

Copyright © 2014 by Pacific Standard and The Miller-McCune Center for Research, Media, and Public Policy. All Rights Reserved.