Menus Subscribe Search

Follow us


bootsontheground

(PHOTO: SHUTTERSTOCK)

Coming Home Shell-Shocked

• December 10, 2012 • 4:00 AM

(PHOTO: SHUTTERSTOCK)

How do we treat post-traumatic stress disorder if we don’t first understand it?

Franklin D. Roosevelt, the president who led the United States into the depths of total war and back out again, has a little-visited memorial on the far side of the Tidal Basin in Washington, D.C. It’s private and reflective, like the man himself, and chiseled into the rough stone are these words, from a Chautauqua speech made three years before the German invasion of Poland: “I have seen war. I have seen war on land and sea. I have seen blood running from the wounded… I have seen the dead in the mud. I have seen cities destroyed… I have seen children starving. I have seen the agony of mothers and wives. I hate war.”

The awful cost and calculus of war never changes, of course, but in the 60 years between Operation Overlord and Operation Iraqi Freedom, our understanding of the human brain, on and off the battlefield, has marched far ahead. Post-traumatic stress disorder—what Roosevelt would have known as “shell shock”—is now both a clinical term and a household one. A traumatic brain injury is understood to be as dangerous a wound as the kind that bleeds. Psychologists like Brett Litz of Boston University even speak of “moral injury”—an act of transgression that violates a soldier’s ethical or religious code, and leaves its scar chiefly on the soul, rather than the body or the brain.

PTSD affects some 27 percent of soldiers returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan, according to the Congressional Research Service, while the suicide rate among male veterans is quadruple that of civilians. Those figures only include soldiers who sought help through VA hospitals, suggesting the actual numbers are higher.

For all the hand-wringing now going on at the top levels of the Pentagon, we understand relatively little of the neuroscience behind PTSD. Is it “combat exposure”—suffering and perpetrating the quotidian atrocities of war—that leads veterans to unravel once they’re back home? Or might some soldiers simply be predisposed to emotional distress?

That’s the question Dorthe Bertnsen, a Danish psychologist, and her colleagues raise in a novel study to be published in Psychological Science. Despite three decades of research, the authors note, there’s almost no baseline data on soldiers with PTSD, yet only by evaluating servicemen before they go into battle can we make sense of how they fare later.

The authors interviewed 366 Danish soldiers, male and female, at five points throughout their deployments to Afghanistan: before, during, and three times in the year after they came home. They then mapped the soldiers’ emotional trajectories, to see who came home damaged—and why.

Some interesting lessons emerged. Bertnsen identified three common paths: resilient soldiers, who showed low levels of PTSD symptoms throughout their deployments; afflicted soldiers, who showed low levels during deployment but increasingly began to suffer in the months after returning home; and, paradoxically, soldiers who appeared to actually benefit from being in combat, with high levels of PTSD symptoms before and after service, but not during.

Afflicted soldiers—those who enlisted healthy but came home distressed—were more likely to have had trauma in their personal lives, and to have received help for emotional problems, than their resilient peers. Many had witnessed family violence, been physically abused as children (burned, cut, bruised), or been assaulted by a partner. “Traumas involving interpersonal violence in childhood appeared especially central,” the authors report. “This finding adds to previous work showing the importance of childhood traumas as a risk factor for PTSD later in life.”

More surprising were the soldiers who “benefitted” from combat—those whose PTSD symptoms were temporarily abated while overseas but returned upon homecoming. This cohort, which accounted for 13 percent of the Danish soldiers, tended to be less well educated, with a high incidence of “pronounced emotional problems.” The servicemen apparently found the army’s camaraderie and esprit de corps a happy escape, however temporary, from the stressors of home life.

All of which muddies our understanding of PTSD—and refines it.

There is no single PTSD experience, the authors conclude, and any number of factors, not just combat exposure but childhood trauma and education level, influence how a veteran deals with the emotional aftershocks of war. “This does not defy a dose-response view of PTSD—that is, the view that the magnitude of the trauma predicts the severity of the symptoms—but suggests that such a view be considered in a more complex…perspective.”

With our troops home from Iraq and soon to leave Afghanistan, the “war on terror” is long over. The war on PTSD, however, has only just begun. It won’t be easily won.

Kevin Charles Redmon
Kevin Charles Redmon is a journalist and critic. He lives in Washington, D.C.

More From Kevin Charles Redmon

A weekly roundup of the best of Pacific Standard and PSmag.com, delivered straight to your inbox.

Recent Posts


September 30 • 10:09 AM

Trust Is Waning, and Inequality May Be to Blame

Trust in others and confidence in institutions is declining, while economic inequality creeps up, a new study shows.


September 30 • 8:00 AM

The Psychology of Penmanship

Graphology: It’s all (probably) bunk.



September 30 • 6:00 AM

The Medium Is the Message, 50 Years Later

Five decades on, what can Marshall McLuhan’s Understanding Media tell us about today?


September 30 • 4:00 AM

Grad School’s Mental Health Problem

Navigating the emotional stress of doctoral programs in a down market.


September 29 • 1:21 PM

Conference Call: Free Will Conference


September 29 • 12:00 PM

How Copyright Law Protects Art From Criticism

A case for allowing the copyright on Gone With the Wind to expire.


September 29 • 10:00 AM

Should We Be Told Who Funds Political Attack Ads?

On the value of campaign finance disclosure.


September 29 • 8:00 AM

Searching for a Man Named Penis

A quest to track down a real Penis proves difficult.


September 29 • 6:00 AM

Why Do So Many People Watch HGTV?

The same reason so many people watch NCIS or Law and Order: It’s all a procedural.


September 29 • 4:00 AM

The Link Between Depression and Terrorism

A new study from the United Kingdom finds a connection between depression and radicalization.


September 26 • 4:00 PM

Fast Track to a Spill?

Oil pipeline projects across America are speeding forward without environmental review.


September 26 • 2:00 PM

Why Liberals Love the Disease Theory of Addiction, by a Liberal Who Hates It

The disease model is convenient to liberals because it spares them having to say negative things about poor communities. But this conception of addiction harms the very people we wish to help.


September 26 • 1:21 PM

Race, Trust, and Split-Second Judgments


September 26 • 9:47 AM

Dopamine Might Be Behind Impulsive Behavior

A monkey study suggests the brain chemical makes what’s new and different more attractive.


September 26 • 8:00 AM

A Letter Becomes a Book Becomes a Play

Sarah Ruhl’s Dear Elizabeth: A Play in Letters From Elizabeth Bishop to Robert Lowell and Back Again takes 900 pages of correspondence between the two poets and turns them into an on-stage performance.


September 26 • 7:00 AM

Sonic Hedgehog, DICER, and the Problem With Naming Genes

Wait, why is there a Pokemon gene?


September 26 • 6:00 AM

Sounds Like the Blues

At a music-licensing firm, any situation can become nostalgic, romantic, or adventurous, given the right background sounds.


September 26 • 5:00 AM

The Dark Side of Empathy

New research finds the much-lauded feeling of identification with another person’s emotions can lead to unwarranted aggressive behavior.



September 25 • 4:00 PM

Forging a New Path: Working to Build the Perfect Wildlife Corridor

When it comes to designing wildlife corridors, our most brilliant analytical minds are still no match for Mother Nature. But we’re getting there.


September 25 • 2:00 PM

Fashion as a Inescapable Institution

Like it or not, fashion is an institution because we can no longer feasibly make our own clothes.


September 25 • 12:00 PM

The Fake Birth Mothers Who Bilk Couples Out of Their Cash by Promising Future Babies

Another group that’s especially vulnerable to scams and fraud is that made up of those who are desperate to adopt a child.


September 25 • 10:03 AM

The Way We QuickType


Follow us


Trust Is Waning, and Inequality May Be to Blame

Trust in others and confidence in institutions is declining, while economic inequality creeps up, a new study shows.

Dopamine Might Be Behind Impulsive Behavior

A monkey study suggests the brain chemical makes what's new and different more attractive.

School Counselors Do More Than You’d Think

Adding just one counselor to a school has an enormous impact on discipline and test scores, according to a new study.

How a Second Language Trains Your Brain for Math

Second languages strengthen the brain's executive control circuits, with benefits beyond words.

Would You Rather Go Blind or Lose Your Mind?

Americans consistently fear blindness, but how they compare it to other ailments varies across racial lines.

The Big One

One company, Amazon, controls 67 percent of the e-book market in the United States—down from 90 percent five years ago. September/October 2014 new-big-one-5

Copyright © 2014 by Pacific Standard and The Miller-McCune Center for Research, Media, and Public Policy. All Rights Reserved.